The Ifugao Rice Terraces are UNESCO World Heritage monuments that attest to the ingenuity and communitarian management of Cordilleran people of Luzon in the Philippines. Once thought to be over 2,000 years old, archaeological excavations have demonstrated that the upland rice field systems in the region were responses to the social and political pressure from intrusive Spanish colonization into the region starting at c. AD 1600. To determine the impacts of Spanish colonialism on Philippine highland populations, the 2016 field season of the Ifugao Archaeological Project (IAP) focused on the Old Kiyyangan Village, an abandoned settlement in the town of Kiangan, Ifugao. The IAP’s primary research goals were: 1) to document highland political and economic responses to colonialism by looking at the development and expansion of the Old Kiyyangan Village; 2) to determine subsistence shifts and health and diet by examining botanical, faunal, and human skeletal remains; 3) to investigate the process of increasing social differentiation through the examination of exotic goods; and, 4) to understand how the Philippine highlands resisted Spanish colonialism by exploring settlement patterns in Ifugao. Read more about the Ifugao field school led by current IFR field school director of the Bicol field school, Stephen Acobado.